gmultiset.v 15.1 KB
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(* Copyright (c) 2012-2017, Coq-std++ developers. *)
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(* This file is distributed under the terms of the BSD license. *)
From stdpp Require Import gmap.
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Set Default Proof Using "Type".
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Record gmultiset A `{Countable A} := GMultiSet { gmultiset_car : gmap A nat }.
Arguments GMultiSet {_ _ _} _.
Arguments gmultiset_car {_ _ _} _.

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Lemma gmultiset_eq_dec `{Countable A} : EqDecision (gmultiset A).
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Proof. solve_decision. Defined.
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Hint Extern 1 (Decision (@eq (gmultiset _) _ _)) =>
  eapply @gmultiset_eq_dec : typeclass_instances.
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Program Definition gmultiset_countable `{Countable A} :
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    Countable (gmultiset A) := {|
  encode X := encode (gmultiset_car X);  decode p := GMultiSet <$> decode p
|}.
Next Obligation. intros A ?? [X]; simpl. by rewrite decode_encode. Qed.
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Hint Extern 1 (Countable (gmultiset _)) =>
  eapply @gmultiset_countable : typeclass_instances.
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Section definitions.
  Context `{Countable A}.

  Definition multiplicity (x : A) (X : gmultiset A) : nat :=
    match gmultiset_car X !! x with Some n => S n | None => 0 end.
  Instance gmultiset_elem_of : ElemOf A (gmultiset A) := λ x X,
    0 < multiplicity x X.
  Instance gmultiset_subseteq : SubsetEq (gmultiset A) := λ X Y,  x,
    multiplicity x X  multiplicity x Y.

  Instance gmultiset_elements : Elements A (gmultiset A) := λ X,
    let (X) := X in '(x,n)  map_to_list X; replicate (S n) x.
  Instance gmultiset_size : Size (gmultiset A) := length  elements.

  Instance gmultiset_empty : Empty (gmultiset A) := GMultiSet .
  Instance gmultiset_singleton : Singleton A (gmultiset A) := λ x,
    GMultiSet {[ x := 0 ]}.
  Instance gmultiset_union : Union (gmultiset A) := λ X Y,
    let (X) := X in let (Y) := Y in
    GMultiSet $ union_with (λ x y, Some (S (x + y))) X Y.
  Instance gmultiset_difference : Difference (gmultiset A) := λ X Y,
    let (X) := X in let (Y) := Y in
    GMultiSet $ difference_with (λ x y,
      let z := x - y in guard (0 < z); Some (pred z)) X Y.
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  Instance gmultiset_dom : Dom (gmultiset A) (gset A) := λ X,
    let (X) := X in dom _ X.
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End definitions.

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Typeclasses Opaque gmultiset_elem_of gmultiset_subseteq.
Typeclasses Opaque gmultiset_elements gmultiset_size gmultiset_empty.
Typeclasses Opaque gmultiset_singleton gmultiset_union gmultiset_difference.
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Typeclasses Opaque gmultiset_dom.
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(** These instances are declared using [Hint Extern] to avoid too
eager type class search. *)
Hint Extern 1 (ElemOf _ (gmultiset _)) =>
  eapply @gmultiset_elem_of : typeclass_instances.
Hint Extern 1 (SubsetEq (gmultiset _)) =>
  eapply @gmultiset_subseteq : typeclass_instances.
Hint Extern 1 (Empty (gmultiset _)) =>
  eapply @gmultiset_empty : typeclass_instances.
Hint Extern 1 (Singleton _ (gmultiset _)) =>
  eapply @gmultiset_singleton : typeclass_instances.
Hint Extern 1 (Union (gmultiset _)) =>
  eapply @gmultiset_union : typeclass_instances.
Hint Extern 1 (Difference (gmultiset _)) =>
  eapply @gmultiset_difference : typeclass_instances.
Hint Extern 1 (Elements _ (gmultiset _)) =>
  eapply @gmultiset_elements : typeclass_instances.
Hint Extern 1 (Size (gmultiset _)) =>
  eapply @gmultiset_size : typeclass_instances.
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Hint Extern 1 (Dom (gmultiset _) _) =>
  eapply @gmultiset_dom : typeclass_instances.
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Section lemmas.
Context `{Countable A}.
Implicit Types x y : A.
Implicit Types X Y : gmultiset A.

Lemma gmultiset_eq X Y : X = Y   x, multiplicity x X = multiplicity x Y.
Proof.
  split; [by intros ->|intros HXY].
  destruct X as [X], Y as [Y]; f_equal; apply map_eq; intros x.
  specialize (HXY x); unfold multiplicity in *; simpl in *.
  repeat case_match; naive_solver.
Qed.

(* Multiplicity *)
Lemma multiplicity_empty x : multiplicity x  = 0.
Proof. done. Qed.
Lemma multiplicity_singleton x : multiplicity x {[ x ]} = 1.
Proof. unfold multiplicity; simpl. by rewrite lookup_singleton. Qed.
Lemma multiplicity_singleton_ne x y : x  y  multiplicity x {[ y ]} = 0.
Proof. intros. unfold multiplicity; simpl. by rewrite lookup_singleton_ne. Qed.
Lemma multiplicity_union X Y x :
  multiplicity x (X  Y) = multiplicity x X + multiplicity x Y.
Proof.
  destruct X as [X], Y as [Y]; unfold multiplicity; simpl.
  rewrite lookup_union_with. destruct (X !! _), (Y !! _); simpl; omega.
Qed.
Lemma multiplicity_difference X Y x :
  multiplicity x (X  Y) = multiplicity x X - multiplicity x Y.
Proof.
  destruct X as [X], Y as [Y]; unfold multiplicity; simpl.
  rewrite lookup_difference_with.
  destruct (X !! _), (Y !! _); simplify_option_eq; omega.
Qed.

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(* Collection *)
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Lemma elem_of_multiplicity x X : x  X  0 < multiplicity x X.
Proof. done. Qed.

Global Instance gmultiset_simple_collection : SimpleCollection A (gmultiset A).
Proof.
  split.
  - intros x. rewrite elem_of_multiplicity, multiplicity_empty. omega.
  - intros x y. destruct (decide (x = y)) as [->|].
    + rewrite elem_of_multiplicity, multiplicity_singleton. split; auto with lia.
    + rewrite elem_of_multiplicity, multiplicity_singleton_ne by done.
      by split; auto with lia.
  - intros X Y x. rewrite !elem_of_multiplicity, multiplicity_union. omega.
Qed.
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Global Instance gmultiset_elem_of_dec x X : Decision (x  X).
Proof. unfold elem_of, gmultiset_elem_of. apply _. Defined.
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(* Algebraic laws *)
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Global Instance gmultiset_comm : Comm (@eq (gmultiset A)) ().
Proof.
  intros X Y. apply gmultiset_eq; intros x. rewrite !multiplicity_union; omega.
Qed.
Global Instance gmultiset_assoc : Assoc (@eq (gmultiset A)) ().
Proof.
  intros X Y Z. apply gmultiset_eq; intros x. rewrite !multiplicity_union; omega.
Qed.
Global Instance gmultiset_left_id : LeftId (@eq (gmultiset A))  ().
Proof.
  intros X. apply gmultiset_eq; intros x.
  by rewrite multiplicity_union, multiplicity_empty.
Qed.
Global Instance gmultiset_right_id : RightId (@eq (gmultiset A))  ().
Proof. intros X. by rewrite (comm_L ()), (left_id_L _ _). Qed.

Global Instance gmultiset_union_inj_1 X : Inj (=) (=) (X ).
Proof.
  intros Y1 Y2. rewrite !gmultiset_eq. intros HX x; generalize (HX x).
  rewrite !multiplicity_union. omega.
Qed.
Global Instance gmultiset_union_inj_2 X : Inj (=) (=) ( X).
Proof. intros Y1 Y2. rewrite <-!(comm_L _ X). apply (inj _). Qed.

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Lemma gmultiset_non_empty_singleton x : {[ x ]}  ( : gmultiset A).
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Proof.
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  rewrite gmultiset_eq. intros Hx; generalize (Hx x).
  by rewrite multiplicity_singleton, multiplicity_empty.
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Qed.

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(* Properties of the elements operation *)
Lemma gmultiset_elements_empty : elements ( : gmultiset A) = [].
Proof.
  unfold elements, gmultiset_elements; simpl. by rewrite map_to_list_empty.
Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_elements_empty_inv X : elements X = []  X = .
Proof.
  destruct X as [X]; unfold elements, gmultiset_elements; simpl.
  intros; apply (f_equal GMultiSet). destruct (map_to_list X)
    as [|[]] eqn:?; naive_solver eauto using map_to_list_empty_inv.
Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_elements_empty' X : elements X = []  X = .
Proof.
  split; intros HX; [by apply gmultiset_elements_empty_inv|].
  by rewrite HX, gmultiset_elements_empty.
Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_elements_singleton x : elements ({[ x ]} : gmultiset A) = [ x ].
Proof.
  unfold elements, gmultiset_elements; simpl. by rewrite map_to_list_singleton.
Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_elements_union X Y :
  elements (X  Y)  elements X ++ elements Y.
Proof.
  destruct X as [X], Y as [Y]; unfold elements, gmultiset_elements.
  set (f xn := let '(x, n) := xn in replicate (S n) x); simpl.
  revert Y; induction X as [|x n X HX IH] using map_ind; intros Y.
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  { by rewrite (left_id_L _ _ Y), map_to_list_empty. }
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  destruct (Y !! x) as [n'|] eqn:HY.
  - rewrite <-(insert_id Y x n'), <-(insert_delete Y) by done.
    erewrite <-insert_union_with by done.
    rewrite !map_to_list_insert, !bind_cons
      by (by rewrite ?lookup_union_with, ?lookup_delete, ?HX).
    rewrite (assoc_L _), <-(comm (++) (f (_,n'))), <-!(assoc_L _), <-IH.
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    rewrite (assoc_L _). f_equiv.
    rewrite (comm _); simpl. by rewrite replicate_plus, Permutation_middle.
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  - rewrite <-insert_union_with_l, !map_to_list_insert, !bind_cons
      by (by rewrite ?lookup_union_with, ?HX, ?HY).
    by rewrite <-(assoc_L (++)), <-IH.
Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_elem_of_elements x X : x  elements X  x  X.
Proof.
  destruct X as [X]. unfold elements, gmultiset_elements.
  set (f xn := let '(x, n) := xn in replicate (S n) x); simpl.
  unfold elem_of at 2, gmultiset_elem_of, multiplicity; simpl.
  rewrite elem_of_list_bind. split.
  - intros [[??] [[<- ?]%elem_of_replicate ->%elem_of_map_to_list]]; lia.
  - intros. destruct (X !! x) as [n|] eqn:Hx; [|omega].
    exists (x,n); split; [|by apply elem_of_map_to_list].
    apply elem_of_replicate; auto with omega.
Qed.
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Lemma gmultiset_elem_of_dom x X : x  dom (gset A) X  x  X.
Proof.
  unfold dom, gmultiset_dom, elem_of at 2, gmultiset_elem_of, multiplicity.
  destruct X as [X]; simpl; rewrite elem_of_dom, <-not_eq_None_Some.
  destruct (X !! x); naive_solver omega.
Qed.
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(* Properties of the size operation *)
Lemma gmultiset_size_empty : size ( : gmultiset A) = 0.
Proof. done. Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_size_empty_inv X : size X = 0  X = .
Proof.
  unfold size, gmultiset_size; simpl. rewrite length_zero_iff_nil.
  apply gmultiset_elements_empty_inv.
Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_size_empty_iff X : size X = 0  X = .
Proof.
  split; [apply gmultiset_size_empty_inv|].
  by intros ->; rewrite gmultiset_size_empty.
Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_size_non_empty_iff X : size X  0  X  .
Proof. by rewrite gmultiset_size_empty_iff. Qed.

Lemma gmultiset_choose_or_empty X : ( x, x  X)  X = .
Proof.
  destruct (elements X) as [|x l] eqn:HX; [right|left].
  - by apply gmultiset_elements_empty_inv.
  - exists x. rewrite <-gmultiset_elem_of_elements, HX. by left.
Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_choose X : X     x, x  X.
Proof. intros. by destruct (gmultiset_choose_or_empty X). Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_size_pos_elem_of X : 0 < size X   x, x  X.
Proof.
  intros Hsz. destruct (gmultiset_choose_or_empty X) as [|HX]; [done|].
  contradict Hsz. rewrite HX, gmultiset_size_empty; lia.
Qed.

Lemma gmultiset_size_singleton x : size ({[ x ]} : gmultiset A) = 1.
Proof.
  unfold size, gmultiset_size; simpl. by rewrite gmultiset_elements_singleton.
Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_size_union X Y : size (X  Y) = size X + size Y.
Proof.
  unfold size, gmultiset_size; simpl.
  by rewrite gmultiset_elements_union, app_length.
Qed.
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(* Order stuff *)
Global Instance gmultiset_po : PartialOrder (@subseteq (gmultiset A) _).
Proof.
  split; [split|].
  - by intros X x.
  - intros X Y Z HXY HYZ x. by trans (multiplicity x Y).
  - intros X Y HXY HYX; apply gmultiset_eq; intros x. by apply (anti_symm ()).
Qed.

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Lemma gmultiset_subseteq_alt X Y :
  X  Y 
  map_relation () (λ _, False) (λ _, True) (gmultiset_car X) (gmultiset_car Y).
Proof.
  apply forall_proper; intros x. unfold multiplicity.
  destruct (gmultiset_car X !! x), (gmultiset_car Y !! x); naive_solver omega.
Qed.
Global Instance gmultiset_subseteq_dec X Y : Decision (X  Y).
Proof.
 refine (cast_if (decide (map_relation ()
   (λ _, False) (λ _, True) (gmultiset_car X) (gmultiset_car Y))));
   by rewrite gmultiset_subseteq_alt.
Defined.

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Lemma gmultiset_subset_subseteq X Y : X  Y  X  Y.
Proof. apply strict_include. Qed.
Hint Resolve gmultiset_subset_subseteq.

Lemma gmultiset_empty_subseteq X :   X.
Proof. intros x. rewrite multiplicity_empty. omega. Qed.

Lemma gmultiset_union_subseteq_l X Y : X  X  Y.
Proof. intros x. rewrite multiplicity_union. omega. Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_union_subseteq_r X Y : Y  X  Y.
Proof. intros x. rewrite multiplicity_union. omega. Qed.
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Lemma gmultiset_union_mono X1 X2 Y1 Y2 : X1  X2  Y1  Y2  X1  Y1  X2  Y2.
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Proof. intros ?? x. rewrite !multiplicity_union. by apply Nat.add_le_mono. Qed.
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Lemma gmultiset_union_mono_l X Y1 Y2 : Y1  Y2  X  Y1  X  Y2.
Proof. intros. by apply gmultiset_union_mono. Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_union_mono_r X1 X2 Y : X1  X2  X1  Y  X2  Y.
Proof. intros. by apply gmultiset_union_mono. Qed.
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Lemma gmultiset_subset X Y : X  Y  size X < size Y  X  Y.
Proof. intros. apply strict_spec_alt; split; naive_solver auto with omega. Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_union_subset_l X Y : Y    X  X  Y.
Proof.
  intros HY%gmultiset_size_non_empty_iff.
  apply gmultiset_subset; auto using gmultiset_union_subseteq_l.
  rewrite gmultiset_size_union; omega.
Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_union_subset_r X Y : X    Y  X  Y.
Proof. rewrite (comm_L ()). apply gmultiset_union_subset_l. Qed.

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Lemma gmultiset_elem_of_singleton_subseteq x X : x  X  {[ x ]}  X.
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Proof.
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  rewrite elem_of_multiplicity. split.
  - intros Hx y; destruct (decide (x = y)) as [->|].
    + rewrite multiplicity_singleton; omega.
    + rewrite multiplicity_singleton_ne by done; omega.
  - intros Hx. generalize (Hx x). rewrite multiplicity_singleton. omega.
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Qed.

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Lemma gmultiset_elem_of_subseteq X1 X2 x : x  X1  X1  X2  x  X2.
Proof. rewrite !gmultiset_elem_of_singleton_subseteq. by intros ->. Qed.

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Lemma gmultiset_union_difference X Y : X  Y  Y = X  Y  X.
Proof.
  intros HXY. apply gmultiset_eq; intros x; specialize (HXY x).
  rewrite multiplicity_union, multiplicity_difference; omega.
Qed.
Lemma gmultiset_union_difference' x Y : x  Y  Y = {[ x ]}  Y  {[ x ]}.
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Proof.
  intros. by apply gmultiset_union_difference,
    gmultiset_elem_of_singleton_subseteq.
Qed.
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Lemma gmultiset_size_difference X Y : Y  X  size (X  Y) = size X - size Y.
Proof.
  intros HX%gmultiset_union_difference.
  rewrite HX at 2; rewrite gmultiset_size_union. omega.
Qed.

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Lemma gmultiset_non_empty_difference X Y : X  Y  Y  X  .
Proof.
  intros [_ HXY2] Hdiff; destruct HXY2; intros x.
  generalize (f_equal (multiplicity x) Hdiff).
  rewrite multiplicity_difference, multiplicity_empty; omega.
Qed.

Lemma gmultiset_difference_subset X Y : X    X  Y  Y  X  Y.
Proof.
  intros. eapply strict_transitive_l; [by apply gmultiset_union_subset_r|].
  by rewrite <-(gmultiset_union_difference X Y).
Qed.

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(* Mononicity *)
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Lemma gmultiset_elements_submseteq X Y : X  Y  elements X + elements Y.
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Proof.
  intros ->%gmultiset_union_difference. rewrite gmultiset_elements_union.
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  by apply submseteq_inserts_r.
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Qed.

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Lemma gmultiset_subseteq_size X Y : X  Y  size X  size Y.
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Proof. intros. by apply submseteq_length, gmultiset_elements_submseteq. Qed.
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Lemma gmultiset_subset_size X Y : X  Y  size X < size Y.
Proof.
  intros HXY. assert (size (Y  X)  0).
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  { by apply gmultiset_size_non_empty_iff, gmultiset_non_empty_difference. }
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  rewrite (gmultiset_union_difference X Y), gmultiset_size_union by auto. lia.
Qed.

(* Well-foundedness *)
Lemma gmultiset_wf : wf (strict (@subseteq (gmultiset A) _)).
Proof.
  apply (wf_projected (<) size); auto using gmultiset_subset_size, lt_wf.
Qed.
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Lemma gmultiset_ind (P : gmultiset A  Prop) :
  P   ( x X, P X  P ({[ x ]}  X))   X, P X.
Proof.
  intros Hemp Hinsert X. induction (gmultiset_wf X) as [X _ IH].
  destruct (gmultiset_choose_or_empty X) as [[x Hx]| ->]; auto.
  rewrite (gmultiset_union_difference' x X) by done.
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  apply Hinsert, IH, gmultiset_difference_subset,
    gmultiset_elem_of_singleton_subseteq; auto using gmultiset_non_empty_singleton.
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Qed.
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End lemmas.