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In this changelog, we document "large-ish" changes to Iris that affect even the
way the logic is used on paper.  We also mention some significant changes in the
Coq development, but not every API-breaking change is listed.  Changes marked
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`[#]` still need to be ported to the Iris Documentation LaTeX file(s).
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## Iris master

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Changes in and extensions of the theory:

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* [#] Change in the definition of WP, so that there is a fancy update between
  the quantification over the next states and the later modality. This makes it
  possible to prove more powerful lifting lemmas: The new versions feature an
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  "update that takes a step".
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* [#] Weaken the semantics of CAS in heap_lang to be efficiently implementable:
  CAS may only be used to compare "unboxed" values that can be represented in a
  single machine word.
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* [#] Add weakest preconditions for total program correctness.
* [#] "(Potentially) stuck" weakest preconditions are no longer considered
  experimental.
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* [#] The adequacy statement for weakest preconditions now also involves the
  final state.
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* [#] Add the notion of an "observation" to the language interface, so that
  every reduction step can optionally be marked with an event, and an execution
  trace has a matching list of events.  Change WP so that it is told the entire
  future trace of observations from the beginning.  Use this in heap_lang to
  implement prophecy variables.
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* [#] The Löb rule is now a derived rule; it follows from later-intro, later
  being contractive and the fact that we can take fixpoints of contractive
  functions.
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* [#] Add atomic updates and logically atomic triples, including tactic support.
  See `heap_lang/lib/increment.v` for an example.
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* [#] heap_lang now uses right-to-left evaluation order. This makes it
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  significantly easier to write specifications of curried functions.
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* [#] heap_lang values are now injected in heap_lang expressions via a specific
  constructor of the expr inductive type. This simplifies much the tactical
  infrastructure around the language. In particular, this allow us to get rid
  the reflexion mechanism that was needed for proving closedness, atomicity and
  "valueness" of a term. The price to pay is the addition of new
  "administrative" reductions in the operational semantics of the language.

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Changes in Coq:

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* An all-new generalized proof mode that abstracts away from Iris!  See
  <http://iris-project.org/mosel/> for the corresponding paper.  Major new
  features:
  - The proof mode can now be used with logics derived from Iris (like iGPS),
    with non-step-indexed logics and even with non-affine (i.e., linear) logics.
  - `iModIntro` is more flexible and more powerful, it now also subsumes
    `iNext` and `iAlways`.
  - General infrastructure for deriving a logic for monotone predicates over
    an existing logic (see the paper for more details).
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    Developments instantiating the proof mode typeclasses may need significant
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  changes.  For developments just using the proof mode tactics, porting should
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  not be too much effort.  Notable things to port are:
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  - All the BI laws moved from the `uPred` module to the `bi` module.  For
    example, `uPred.later_equivI` became `bi.later_equivI`.
  - Big-ops are automatically imported, imports of `iris.base_logic.big_op` have
    to be removed.
  - The ⊢ notation can sometimes infer different (but convertible) terms when
    seraching for the BI to use, which (due to Coq limitations) can lead to
    failing rewrites, in particular when rewriting at function types.
* The `iInv` tactic can now be used without the second argument (the name for
  the closing update).  It will then instead add the obligation to close the
  invariant to the goal.
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* Added support for defining derived connectives involving n-ary binders using
  telescopes.
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* The proof mode now more consistently "prettifies" the goal after each tactic.
  Prettification also simplifies some BI connectives, like conditional
  modalities and telescope quantifiers.
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* Improved pretty-printing of Iris connectives (in particular WP and fancy
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  updates) when Coq has to line-wrap the output.  This goes hand-in-hand with an
  improved test suite that also tests pretty-printing.
* Added a `gmultiset` RA.
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* Rename `timelessP` -> `timeless` (projection of the `Timeless` class)
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* The CMRA axiom `cmra_extend` is now stated in `Type`, using `sigT` instead of
  in `Prop` using `exists`. This makes it possible to define the function space
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  CMRA even for an infinite domain.
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* Rename proof mode type classes for laters:
  - `IntoLaterN``MaybeIntoLaterN` (this one _may_ strip a later)
  - `IntoLaterN'``IntoLaterN` (this one _should_ strip a later)
  - `IntoLaterNEnv``MaybeIntoLaterNEnv`
  - `IntoLaterNEnvs``MaybeIntoLaterNEnvs`
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* Rename:
  - `frag_auth_op``frac_auth_frag_op`
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  - `cmra_opM_assoc``cmra_op_opM_assoc`
  - `cmra_opM_assoc_L``cmra_op_opM_assoc_L`
  - `cmra_opM_assoc'``cmra_opM_opM_assoc`
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* `namespaces` has been moved to std++.
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* Changed `IntoVal` to be directly usable for rewriting `e` into `of_val v`, and
  changed `AsVal` to be usable for rewriting via the `[v <-]` destruct pattern.
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* `wp_fork` is now written in curried form.
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* `PureExec`/`wp_pure` now supports taking multiple steps at once.
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* A new tactic, `wp_pures`, executes as many pure steps as possible, excluding
  steps that would require unlocking subterms. Every impure wp_ tactic executes
  this tactic before doing anything else.
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## Iris 3.1.0 (released 2017-12-19)
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Changes in and extensions of the theory:

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* Define `uPred` as a quotient on monotone predicates `M -> SProp`.
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* Get rid of some primitive laws; they can be derived:
  `True ⊢ □ True` and `□ (P ∧ Q) ⊢ □ (P ∗ Q)`
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* Camera morphisms have to be homomorphisms, not just monotone functions.
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* Add a proof that `f` has a fixed point if `f^k` is contractive.
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* Constructions for least and greatest fixed points over monotone predicates
  (defined in the logic of Iris using impredicative quantification).
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* Add a proof of the inverse of `wp_bind`.
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* [Experimental feature] Add new modality: ■ ("plainly").
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* [Experimental feature] Support verifying code that might get stuck by
  distinguishing "non-stuck" vs. "(potentially) stuck" weakest
  preconditions. (See [Swasey et al., OOPSLA '17] for examples.) The non-stuck
  `WP e @ E {{ Φ }}` ensures that, as `e` runs, it does not get stuck. The stuck
  `WP e @ E ?{{ Φ }}` ensures that, as usual, all invariants are preserved while
  `e` runs, but it permits execution to get stuck. The former implies the
  latter. The full judgment is `WP e @ s; E {{ Φ }}`, where non-stuck WP uses
  *stuckness bit* `s = NotStuck` while stuck WP uses `s = MaybeStuck`.
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Changes in Coq:

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* Move the `prelude` folder to its own project:
  [coq-std++](https://gitlab.mpi-sws.org/robbertkrebbers/coq-stdpp)
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* Some extensions/improvements of heap_lang:
  - Improve handling of pure (non-state-dependent) reductions.
  - Add fetch-and-add (`FAA`) operation.
  - Add syntax for all Coq's binary operations on `Z`.
* Generalize `saved_prop` to let the user choose the location of the type-level
  later.  Rename the general form to `saved_anything`.  Provide `saved_prop` and
  `saved_pred` as special cases.
* Improved big operators:
  + They are no longer tied to cameras, but work on any monoid
  + The version of big operations over lists was redefined so that it enjoys
    more definitional equalities.
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* Rename some things and change notation:
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  - The unit of a camera: `empty` -> `unit`, `∅` -> `ε`
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  - Disjointness: `⊥` -> `##`
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  - A proof mode type class `IntoOp` -> `IsOp`
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  - OFEs with all elements being discrete: `Discrete` -> `OfeDiscrete`
  - OFE elements whose equality is discrete: `Timeless` -> `Discrete`
  - Timeless propositions: `TimelessP` -> `Timeless`
  - Camera elements such that `core x = x`: `Persistent` -> `CoreId`
  - Persistent propositions: `PersistentP` -> `Persistent`
  - The persistent modality: `always` -> `persistently`
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  - Adequacy for non-stuck weakestpre: `adequate_safe` -> `adequate_not_stuck`
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  - Consistently SnakeCase identifiers:
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    + `CMRAMixin` -> `CmraMixin`
    + `CMRAT` -> `CmraT`
    + `CMRATotal` -> `CmraTotal`
    + `CMRAMorphism` -> `CmraMorphism`
    + `CMRADiscrete` -> `CmraDiscrete`
    + `UCMRAMixin` -> `UcmraMixin`
    + `UCMRAT` -> `UcmraT`
    + `DRAMixin` -> `DraMixin`
    + `DRAT` -> `DraT`
    + `STS` -> `Sts`
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  - Many lemmas also changed their name.  `always_*` became `persistently_*`,
    and furthermore: (the following list is not complete)
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    + `impl_wand` -> `impl_wand_1` (it only involves one direction of the
      equivalent)
    + `always_impl_wand` -> `impl_wand`
    + `always_and_sep_l` -> `and_sep_l`
    + `always_and_sep_r` -> `and_sep_r`
    + `always_sep_dup` -> `sep_dup`
    + `wand_impl_always` -> `impl_wand_persistently` (additionally,
      the direction of this equivalence got swapped for consistency's sake)
    + `always_wand_impl` -> `persistently_impl_wand` (additionally, the
      direction of this equivalence got swapped for consistency's sake)
  The following `sed` snippet should get you most of the way:
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```
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sed 's/\bPersistentP\b/Persistent/g; s/\bTimelessP\b/Timeless/g; s/\bCMRADiscrete\b/CmraDiscrete/g; s/\bCMRAT\b/CmraT/g; s/\bCMRAMixin\b/CmraMixin/g; s/\bUCMRAT\b/UcmraT/g; s/\bUCMRAMixin\b/UcmraMixin/g; s/\bSTS\b/Sts/g' -i $(find -name "*.v")
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```
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* `PersistentL` and `TimelessL` (persistence and timelessness of lists of
  propositions) are replaces by `TCForall` from std++.
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* Fix a bunch of consistency issues in the proof mode, and make it overall more
  usable.  In particular:
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  - All proof mode tactics start the proof mode if necessary; `iStartProof` is
    no longer needed and should only be used for building custom proof mode
    tactics.
  - Change in the grammar of specialization patterns: `>[...]` -> `[> ...]`
  - Various new specification patterns for `done` and framing.
  - There is common machinery for symbolic execution of pure reductions. This
    is provided by the type classes `PureExec` and `IntoVal`.
  - There is a new connective `tc_opaque`, which can be used to make definitions
    opaque for type classes, and thus opaque for most tactics of the proof
    mode.
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  - Define Many missing type class instances for distributing connectives.
  - Implement the tactics `iIntros (?)` and `iIntros "!#"` (i.e. `iAlways`)
    using type classes. This makes them more generic, e.g., `iIntros (?)` also
    works when the universal quantifier is below a modality, and `iAlways` also
    works for the plainness modality.  A breaking change, however, is that these
    tactics now no longer work when the universal quantifier or modality is
    behind a type class opaque definition.  Furthermore, this can change the
    name of anonymous identifiers introduced with the "%" pattern.
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* Make `ofe_fun` dependently typed, subsuming `iprod`.  The latter got removed.
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* Define the generic `fill` operation of the `ectxi_language` construct in terms
  of a left fold instead of a right fold. This gives rise to more definitional
  equalities.
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* The language hierarchy (`language`, `ectx_language`, `ectxi_language`) is now
  fully formalized using canonical structures instead of using a mixture of
  type classes and canonical structures. Also, it now uses explicit mixins. The
  file `program_logic/ectxi_language` contains some documentation on how to
  setup Iris for your language.
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* Restore the original, stronger notion of atomicity alongside the weaker
  notion. These are `Atomic a e` where the stuckness bit `s` indicates whether
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  expression `e` is weakly (`a = WeaklyAtomic`) or strongly
  (`a = StronglyAtomic`) atomic.
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* Various improvements to `solve_ndisj`.
* Use `Hint Mode` to prevent Coq from making arbitrary guesses in the presence
  of evars, which often led to divergence. There are a few places where type
  annotations are now needed.
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* The rules `internal_eq_rewrite` and `internal_eq_rewrite_contractive` are now
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  stated in the logic, i.e., they are `iApply`-friendly.
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## Iris 3.0.0 (released 2017-01-11)
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* There now is a deprecation process.  The modules `*.deprecated` contain
  deprecated notations and definitions that are provided for backwards
  compatibility and will be removed in a future version of Iris.
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* View shifts are radically simplified to just internalize frame-preserving
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  updates.  Weakestpre is defined inside the logic, and invariants and view
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  shifts with masks are also coded up inside Iris.  Adequacy of weakestpre is
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  proven in the logic. The old ownership of the entire physical state is
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  replaced by a user-selected predicate over physical state that is maintained
  by weakestpre.
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* Use OFEs instead of COFEs everywhere.  COFEs are only used for solving the
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  recursive domain equation.  As a consequence, CMRAs no longer need a proof of
  completeness.  (The old `cofeT` is provided by `algebra.deprecated`.)
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* Implement a new agreement construction.  Unlike the old one, this one
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  preserves discreteness.  dec_agree is thus no longer needed and has been moved
  to algebra.deprecated.
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* Renaming and moving things around: uPred and the rest of the base logic are in
  `base_logic`, while `program_logic` is for everything involving the general
  Iris notion of a language.
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* Renaming in prelude.list: Rename `prefix_of` -> `prefix` and `suffix_of` ->
  `suffix` in lemma names, but keep notation ``l1 `prefix_of` l2`` and ``l1
  `suffix_of` l2``.  `` l1 `sublist` l2`` becomes ``l1 `sublist_of` l2``. Rename
  `contains` -> `submseteq` and change `` l1 `contains` l2`` to ``l1 ⊆+ l2``.
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* Slightly weaker notion of atomicity: an expression is atomic if it reduces in
  one step to something that does not reduce further.
* Changed notation for embedding Coq assertions into Iris.  The new notation is
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  ⌜φ⌝.  Also removed `=` and `⊥` from the Iris scope.  (The old notations are
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  provided in `base_logic.deprecated`.)
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* Up-closure of namespaces is now a notation (↑) instead of a coercion.
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* With invariants and the physical state being handled in the logic, there is no
  longer any reason to demand the CMRA unit to be discrete.
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* The language can now fork off multiple threads at once.
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* Local Updates (for the authoritative monoid) are now a 4-way relation with
  syntax-directed lemmas proving them.
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## Iris 2.0

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* [heap_lang] No longer use dependent types for expressions.  Instead, values
  carry a proof of closedness.  Substitution, closedness and value-ness proofs
  are performed by computation after reflecting into a term langauge that knows
  about values and closed expressions.
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* [program_logic/language] The language does not define its own "atomic"
  predicate.  Instead, atomicity is defined as reducing in one step to a value.
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* [program_logic] Due to a lack of maintenance and usefulness, lifting lemmas
  for Hoare triples are removed.

## Iris 2.0-rc2

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This version matches the final ICFP 2016 paper.
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* [algebra] Make the core of an RA or CMRA a partial function.
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* [program_logic/lifting] Lifting lemmas no longer round-trip through a
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  user-chosen predicate to define the configurations we can reduce to; they
  directly relate to the operational semantics.  This is equivalent and
  much simpler to read.
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## Iris 2.0-rc1

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This is the Coq development and Iris Documentation as submitted to ICFP 2016.