Commit c83e64a1 by Ralf Jung

### move the dynamic composeable higher-order ghost state logic up so it does not...

move the dynamic composeable higher-order ghost state logic up so it does not seem to depend on  a language
parent d48b2c6a
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 ... ... @@ -140,6 +140,104 @@ The following rules identify the class of timeless propositions: \end{mathparpagebreakable} \subsection{Dynamic Composeable Higher-Order Resources} \label{sec:composeable-resources} The base logic described in \Sref{sec:base-logic} works over an arbitrary camera $\monoid$ defining the structure of the resources. It turns out that we can generalize this further and permit picking cameras $\iFunc(\Prop)$'' that depend on the structure of propositions themselves. Of course, $\Prop$ is just the syntactic type of propositions; for this to make sense we have to look at the semantics. Furthermore, there is a composability problem with the given logic: if we have one proof performed with camera $\monoid_1$, and another proof carried out with a \emph{different} camera $\monoid_2$, then the two proofs are actually carried out in two \emph{entirely separate logics} and hence cannot be combined. Finally, in many cases just having a single instance'' of a camera available for reasoning is not enough. For example, when reasoning about a dynamically allocated data structure, every time a new instance of that data structure is created, we will want a fresh resource governing the state of this particular instance. While it would be possible to handle this problem whenever it comes up, it turns out to be useful to provide a general solution. The purpose of this section is to describe how we solve these issues. \paragraph{Picking the resources.} The key ingredient that we will employ on top of the base logic is to give some more fixed structure to the resources. To instantiate the logic with dynamic higher-order ghost state, the user picks a family of locally contractive bifunctors $(\iFunc_i : \OFEs^\op \times \OFEs \to \CMRAs)_{i \in \mathcal{I}}$. (This is in contrast to the base logic, where the user picks a single, fixed camera that has a unit.) From this, we construct the bifunctor defining the overall resources as follows: \begin{align*} \GName \eqdef{}& \nat \\ \textdom{ResF}(\ofe^\op, \ofe) \eqdef{}& \prod_{i \in \mathcal I} \GName \fpfn \iFunc_i(\ofe^\op, \ofe) \end{align*} We will motivate both the use of a product and the finite partial function below. $\textdom{ResF}(\ofe^\op, \ofe)$ is a camera by lifting the individual cameras pointwise, and it has a unit (using the empty finite partial function). Furthermore, since the $\iFunc_i$ are locally contractive, so is $\textdom{ResF}$. Now we can write down the recursive domain equation: $\iPreProp \cong \UPred(\textdom{ResF}(\iPreProp, \iPreProp))$ Here, $\iPreProp$ is a COFE defined as the fixed-point of a locally contractive bifunctor, which exists and is unique up to isomorphism by \thmref{thm:america_rutten}, so we obtain some object $\iPreProp$ such that: \begin{align*} \Res &\eqdef \textdom{ResF}(\iPreProp, \iPreProp) \\ \iProp &\eqdef \UPred(\Res) \\ \wIso &: \iProp \nfn \iPreProp \\ \wIso^{-1} &: \iPreProp \nfn \iProp \\ \wIso(\wIso^{-1}(x)) &\eqdef x \\ \wIso^{-1}(\wIso(x)) &\eqdef x \end{align*} Now we can instantiate the base logic described in \Sref{sec:base-logic} with $\Res$ as the chosen camera: $\Sem{\Prop} \eqdef \UPred(\Res)$ We obtain that $\Sem{\Prop} = \iProp$. Effectively, we just defined a way to instantiate the base logic with $\Res$ as the camera of resources, while providing a way for $\Res$ to depend on $\iPreProp$, which is isomorphic to $\Sem\Prop$. We thus obtain all the rules of \Sref{sec:base-logic}, and furthermore, we can use the maps $\wIso$ and $\wIso^{-1}$ \emph{in the logic} to convert between logical propositions $\Sem\Prop$ and the domain $\iPreProp$ which is used in the construction of $\Res$ -- so from elements of $\iPreProp$, we can construct elements of $\Sem{\textlog M}$, which are the elements that can be owned in our logic. \paragraph{Proof composability.} To make our proofs composeable, we \emph{generalize} our proofs over the family of functors. This is possible because we made $\Res$ a \emph{product} of all the cameras picked by the user, and because we can actually work with that product pointwise''. So instead of picking a \emph{concrete} family, proofs will assume to be given an \emph{arbitrary} family of functors, plus a proof that this family \emph{contains the functors they need}. Composing two proofs is then merely a matter of conjoining the assumptions they make about the functors. Since the logic is entirely parametric in the choice of functors, there is no trouble reasoning without full knowledge of the family of functors. Only when the top-level proof is completed we will close'' the proof by picking a concrete family that contains exactly those functors the proof needs. \paragraph{Dynamic resources.} Finally, the use of finite partial functions lets us have as many instances of any camera as we could wish for: Because there can only ever be finitely many instances already allocated, it is always possible to create a fresh instance with any desired (valid) starting state. This is best demonstrated by giving some proof rules. So let us first define the notion of ghost ownership that we use in this logic. Assuming that the family of functors contains the functor $\Sigma_i$ at index $i$, and furthermore assuming that $\monoid_i = \Sigma_i(\iPreProp, \iPreProp)$, given some $\melt \in \monoid_i$ we define: $\ownGhost\gname{\melt:\monoid_i} \eqdef \ownM{(\ldots, \emptyset, i:\mapsingleton \gname \melt, \emptyset, \ldots)}$ This is ownership of the pair (element of the product over all the functors) that has the empty finite partial function in all components \emph{except for} the component corresponding to index $i$, where we own the element $\melt$ at index $\gname$ in the finite partial function. We can show the following properties for this form of ownership: \begin{mathparpagebreakable} \inferH{res-alloc}{\text{$G$ infinite} \and \melt \in \mval_{M_i}} { \TRUE \proves \upd \Exists\gname\in G. \ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i} } \and \inferH{res-update} {\melt \mupd_{M_i} B} {\ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i} \proves \upd \Exists \meltB\in B. \ownGhost\gname{\meltB : M_i}} \inferH{res-empty} {\text{$\munit$ is a unit of $M_i$}} {\TRUE \proves \upd \ownGhost\gname\munit} \axiomH{res-op} {\ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i} * \ownGhost\gname{\meltB : M_i} \provesIff \ownGhost\gname{\melt\mtimes\meltB : M_i}} \axiomH{res-valid} {\ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i} \Ra \mval_{M_i}(\melt)} \inferH{res-timeless} {\text{$\melt$ is a discrete OFE element}} {\timeless{\ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i}}} \end{mathparpagebreakable} Below, we will always work within (an instance of) the logic as described here. Whenever a camera is used in a proof, we implicitly assume it to be available in the global family of functors. We will typically leave the $M_i$ implicit when asserting ghost ownership, as the type of $\melt$ will be clear from the context. %%% Local Variables: %%% mode: latex ... ...
 ... ... @@ -4,101 +4,7 @@ This section describes how to build a program logic for an arbitrary language (\cf \Sref{sec:language}) on top of the base logic. So in the following, we assume that some language $\Lang$ was fixed. \subsection{Dynamic Composeable Higher-Order Resources} \label{sec:composeable-resources} The base logic described in \Sref{sec:base-logic} works over an arbitrary camera $\monoid$ defining the structure of the resources. It turns out that we can generalize this further and permit picking cameras $\iFunc(\Prop)$'' that depend on the structure of propositions themselves. Of course, $\Prop$ is just the syntactic type of propositions; for this to make sense we have to look at the semantics. Furthermore, there is a composability problem with the given logic: if we have one proof performed with camera $\monoid_1$, and another proof carried out with a \emph{different} camera $\monoid_2$, then the two proofs are actually carried out in two \emph{entirely separate logics} and hence cannot be combined. Finally, in many cases just having a single instance'' of a camera available for reasoning is not enough. For example, when reasoning about a dynamically allocated data structure, every time a new instance of that data structure is created, we will want a fresh resource governing the state of this particular instance. While it would be possible to handle this problem whenever it comes up, it turns out to be useful to provide a general solution. The purpose of this section is to describe how we solve these issues. \paragraph{Picking the resources.} The key ingredient that we will employ on top of the base logic is to give some more fixed structure to the resources. To instantiate the program logic, the user picks a family of locally contractive bifunctors $(\iFunc_i : \OFEs \to \CMRAs)_{i \in \mathcal{I}}$. (This is in contrast to the base logic, where the user picks a single, fixed camera that has a unit.) From this, we construct the bifunctor defining the overall resources as follows: \begin{align*} \GName \eqdef{}& \nat \\ \textdom{ResF}(\ofe^\op, \ofe) \eqdef{}& \prod_{i \in \mathcal I} \GName \fpfn \iFunc_i(\ofe^\op, \ofe) \end{align*} We will motivate both the use of a product and the finite partial function below. $\textdom{ResF}(\ofe^\op, \ofe)$ is a camera by lifting the individual cameras pointwise, and it has a unit (using the empty finite partial functions). Furthermore, since the $\iFunc_i$ are locally contractive, so is $\textdom{ResF}$. Now we can write down the recursive domain equation: $\iPreProp \cong \UPred(\textdom{ResF}(\iPreProp, \iPreProp))$ Here, $\iPreProp$ is a COFE defined as the fixed-point of a locally contractive bifunctor, which exists and is unique up to isomorphism by \thmref{thm:america_rutten}. We do not need to consider how the object $\iPreProp$ is constructed, we only need the isomorphism, given by: \begin{align*} \Res &\eqdef \textdom{ResF}(\iPreProp, \iPreProp) \\ \iProp &\eqdef \UPred(\Res) \\ \wIso &: \iProp \nfn \iPreProp \\ \wIso^{-1} &: \iPreProp \nfn \iProp \end{align*} Notice that $\iProp$ is the semantic model of propositions for the base logic described in \Sref{sec:base-logic} with $\Res$: $\Sem{\Prop} \eqdef \iProp = \UPred(\Res)$ Effectively, we just defined a way to instantiate the base logic with $\Res$ as the camera of resources, while providing a way for $\Res$ to depend on $\iPreProp$, which is isomorphic to $\Sem\Prop$. We thus obtain all the rules of \Sref{sec:base-logic}, and furthermore, we can use the maps $\wIso$ and $\wIso^{-1}$ \emph{in the logic} to convert between logical propositions $\Sem\Prop$ and the domain $\iPreProp$ which is used in the construction of $\Res$ -- so from elements of $\iPreProp$, we can construct elements of $\Sem{\textlog M}$, which are the elements that can be owned in our logic. \paragraph{Proof composability.} To make our proofs composeable, we \emph{generalize} our proofs over the family of functors. This is possible because we made $\Res$ a \emph{product} of all the cameras picked by the user, and because we can actually work with that product pointwise''. So instead of picking a \emph{concrete} family, proofs will assume to be given an \emph{arbitrary} family of functors, plus a proof that this family \emph{contains the functors they need}. Composing two proofs is then merely a matter of conjoining the assumptions they make about the functors. Since the logic is entirely parametric in the choice of functors, there is no trouble reasoning without full knowledge of the family of functors. Only when the top-level proof is completed we will close'' the proof by picking a concrete family that contains exactly those functors the proof needs. \paragraph{Dynamic resources.} Finally, the use of finite partial functions lets us have as many instances of any camera as we could wish for: Because there can only ever be finitely many instances already allocated, it is always possible to create a fresh instance with any desired (valid) starting state. This is best demonstrated by giving some proof rules. So let us first define the notion of ghost ownership that we use in this logic. Assuming that the family of functors contains the functor $\Sigma_i$ at index $i$, and furthermore assuming that $\monoid_i = \Sigma_i(\iPreProp, \iPreProp)$, given some $\melt \in \monoid_i$ we define: $\ownGhost\gname{\melt:\monoid_i} \eqdef \ownM{(\ldots, \emptyset, i:\mapsingleton \gname \melt, \emptyset, \ldots)}$ This is ownership of the pair (element of the product over all the functors) that has the empty finite partial function in all components \emph{except for} the component corresponding to index $i$, where we own the element $\melt$ at index $\gname$ in the finite partial function. We can show the following properties for this form of ownership: \begin{mathparpagebreakable} \inferH{res-alloc}{\text{$G$ infinite} \and \melt \in \mval_{M_i}} { \TRUE \proves \upd \Exists\gname\in G. \ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i} } \and \inferH{res-update} {\melt \mupd_{M_i} B} {\ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i} \proves \upd \Exists \meltB\in B. \ownGhost\gname{\meltB : M_i}} \inferH{res-empty} {\text{$\munit$ is a unit of $M_i$}} {\TRUE \proves \upd \ownGhost\gname\munit} \axiomH{res-op} {\ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i} * \ownGhost\gname{\meltB : M_i} \provesIff \ownGhost\gname{\melt\mtimes\meltB : M_i}} \axiomH{res-valid} {\ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i} \Ra \mval_{M_i}(\melt)} \inferH{res-timeless} {\text{$\melt$ is a discrete OFE element}} {\timeless{\ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i}}} \end{mathparpagebreakable} Below, we will always work within (an instance of) the logic as described here. Whenever a camera is used in a proof, we implicitly assume it to be available in the global family of functors. We will typically leave the $M_i$ implicit when asserting ghost ownership, as the type of $\melt$ will be clear from the context. Furthermore, we work in the logic with higher-order ghost state as described in \Sref{sec:composeable-resources}. \subsection{World Satisfaction, Invariants, Fancy Updates} ... ...
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