derived.tex 16.6 KB
 Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 \section{Derived proof rules} \subsection{Base logic} \ralf{Give the most important derived rules.} \subsection{Program logic} \ralf{Sync this with Coq.}  Ralf Jung committed Mar 06, 2016 10 11  Hoare triples and view shifts are syntactic sugar for weakest (liberal) preconditions and primitive view shifts, respectively:  Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 % % \hoare{\prop}{\expr}{\Ret\val.\propB}[\mask] \eqdef \always{(\prop \Ra \dynA{\expr}{\lambda\Ret\val.\propB}{\mask})} % \qquad\qquad % \begin{aligned} % \prop \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \propB &\eqdef \always{(\prop \Ra \pvsA{\propB}{\mask_1}{\mask_2})} \\ % \prop \vsE[\mask_1][\mask_2] \propB &\eqdef \prop \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \propB \land \propB \vs[\mask2][\mask_1] \prop % \end{aligned} %  Ralf Jung committed Mar 06, 2016 20 21 22 23 24 We write just one mask for a view shift when $\mask_1 = \mask_2$. The convention for omitted masks is generous: An omitted $\mask$ is $\top$ for Hoare triples and $\emptyset$ for view shifts.  Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 25 \paragraph{Hoare triples.}  Ralf Jung committed Mar 06, 2016 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 \begin{mathpar} \inferH{Ret} {} {\hoare{\TRUE}{\valB}{\Ret\val. \val = \valB}[\mask]} \and \inferH{Bind} {\hoare{\prop}{\expr}{\Ret\val. \propB}[\mask] \\ \All \val. \hoare{\propB}{K[\val]}{\Ret\valB.\propC}[\mask]} {\hoare{\prop}{K[\expr]}{\Ret\valB.\propC}[\mask]} \and \inferH{Csq} {\prop \vs \prop' \\ \hoare{\prop'}{\expr}{\Ret\val.\propB'}[\mask] \\ \All \val. \propB' \vs \propB} {\hoare{\prop}{\expr}{\Ret\val.\propB}[\mask]} \and \inferH{Frame} {\hoare{\prop}{\expr}{\Ret\val. \propB}[\mask]} {\hoare{\prop * \propC}{\expr}{\Ret\val. \propB * \propC}[\mask \uplus \mask']} \and \inferH{AFrame} {\hoare{\prop}{\expr}{\Ret\val. \propB}[\mask] \and \text{$\expr$ not a value} } {\hoare{\prop * \later\propC}{\expr}{\Ret\val. \propB * \propC}[\mask \uplus \mask']} % \and % \inferH{Fork} % {\hoare{\prop}{\expr}{\Ret\any. \TRUE}[\top]} % {\hoare{\later\prop * \later\propB}{\fork{\expr}}{\Ret\val. \val = \textsf{fRet} \land \propB}[\mask]} \and \inferH{ACsq} {\prop \vs[\mask \uplus \mask'][\mask] \prop' \\ \hoare{\prop'}{\expr}{\Ret\val.\propB'}[\mask] \\ \All\val. \propB' \vs[\mask][\mask \uplus \mask'] \propB \\ \physatomic{\expr} } {\hoare{\prop}{\expr}{\Ret\val.\propB}[\mask \uplus \mask']} \end{mathpar}  Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 64 \paragraph{View shifts.}  Ralf Jung committed Mar 06, 2016 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  \begin{mathpar} \inferH{NewInv} {\infinite(\mask)} {\later{\prop} \vs[\mask] \exists \iname\in\mask.\; \knowInv{\iname}{\prop}} \and \inferH{FpUpd} {\melt \mupd \meltsB} {\ownGGhost{\melt} \vs \exists \meltB \in \meltsB.\; \ownGGhost{\meltB}} \and \inferH{VSTrans} {\prop \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \propB \and \propB \vs[\mask_2][\mask_3] \propC \and \mask_2 \subseteq \mask_1 \cup \mask_3} {\prop \vs[\mask_1][\mask_3] \propC} \and \inferH{VSImp} {\always{(\prop \Ra \propB)}} {\prop \vs[\emptyset] \propB} \and \inferH{VSFrame} {\prop \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \propB} {\prop * \propC \vs[\mask_1 \uplus \mask'][\mask_2 \uplus \mask'] \propB * \propC} \and \inferH{VSTimeless} {\timeless{\prop}} {\later \prop \vs \prop} \and \axiomH{InvOpen} {\knowInv{\iname}{\prop} \proves \TRUE \vs[\{ \iname \} ][\emptyset] \later \prop} \and \axiomH{InvClose} {\knowInv{\iname}{\prop} \proves \later \prop \vs[\emptyset][\{ \iname \} ] \TRUE } \end{mathpar} \vspace{5pt} \subsection{Derived rules}  Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 101 \ralf{Move all these to the two paragraphs above.}  Ralf Jung committed Mar 06, 2016 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121  \paragraph{Derived structural rules.} The following are easily derived by unfolding the sugar for Hoare triples and view shifts. \begin{mathpar} \inferHB{Disj} {\hoare{\prop}{\expr}{\Ret\val.\propC}[\mask] \and \hoare{\propB}{\expr}{\Ret\val.\propC}[\mask]} {\hoare{\prop \lor \propB}{\expr}{\Ret\val.\propC}[\mask]} \and \inferHB{VSDisj} {\prop \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \propC \and \propB \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \propC} {\prop \lor \propB \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \propC} \and \inferHB{Exist} {\All \var. \hoare{\prop}{\expr}{\Ret\val.\propB}[\mask]} {\hoare{\Exists \var. \prop}{\expr}{\Ret\val.\propB}[\mask]} \and \inferHB{VSExist} {\All \var. (\prop \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \propB)} {(\Exists \var. \prop) \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \propB} \and  Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 122 123 \inferHB{HtBox} {\always\propB \proves \hoare{\prop}{\expr}{\Ret\val.\propC}[\mask]}  Ralf Jung committed Mar 06, 2016 124 125  {\hoare{\prop \land \always{\propB}}{\expr}{\Ret\val.\propC}[\mask]} \and  Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 126 127 \inferHB{VsBox} {\always\propB \proves \prop \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \propC}  Ralf Jung committed Mar 06, 2016 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158  {\prop \land \always{\propB} \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \propC} \and \inferH{False} {} {\hoare{\FALSE}{\expr}{\Ret \val. \prop}[\mask]} \and \inferH{VSFalse} {} {\FALSE \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \prop } \end{mathpar} \paragraph{Derived rules for invariants.} Invariants can be opened around atomic expressions and view shifts. \begin{mathpar} \inferH{Inv} {\hoare{\later{\propC} * \prop } {\expr} {\Ret\val. \later{\propC} * \propB }[\mask] \and \physatomic{\expr} } {\knowInv{\iname}{\propC} \proves \hoare{\prop} {\expr} {\Ret\val. \propB}[\mask \uplus \{ \iname \}] } \and \inferH{VSInv} {\later{\prop} * \propB \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \later{\prop} * \propC} {\knowInv{\iname}{\prop} \proves \propB \vs[\mask_1 \uplus \{ \iname \}][\mask_2 \uplus \{ \iname \}] \propC} \end{mathpar}  Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 159 \clearpage  Ralf Jung committed Jan 31, 2016 160 161 \section{Derived constructions}  Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 In this section we describe some derived constructions that are generally useful and language-independent. \ralf{Describe at least global monoid and invariant namespaces.} % \subsection{Global monoid} % Hereinafter we assume the global monoid (served up as a parameter to Iris) is obtained from a family of monoids $(M_i)_{i \in I}$ by first applying the construction for finite partial functions to each~(\Sref{sec:fpfunm}), and then applying the product construction~(\Sref{sec:prodm}): % $M \eqdef \prod_{i \in I} \textdom{GhName} \fpfn M_i$ % We don't care so much about what concretely $\textdom{GhName}$ is, as long as it is countable and infinite. % We write $\ownGhost{\gname}{\melt : M_i}$ (or just $\ownGhost{\gname}{\melt}$ if $M_i$ is clear from the context) for $\ownGGhost{[i \mapsto [\gname \mapsto \melt]]}$ when $\melt \in \mcarp {M_i}$, and for $\FALSE$ when $\melt = \mzero_{M_i}$. % In other words, $\ownGhost{\gname}{\melt : M_i}$ asserts that in the current state of monoid $M_i$, the name $\gname$ is allocated and has at least value $\melt$. % From~\ruleref{FpUpd} and the multiplications and frame-preserving updates in~\Sref{sec:prodm} and~\Sref{sec:fpfunm}, we have the following derived rules. % \begin{mathpar} % \axiomH{NewGhost}{ % \TRUE \vs \Exists\gname. \ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i} % } % \and % \inferH{GhostUpd} % {\melt \mupd_{M_i} B} % {\ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i} \vs \Exists \meltB\in B. \ownGhost\gname{\meltB : M_i}} % \and % \axiomH{GhostEq} % {\ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i} * \ownGhost\gname{\meltB : M_i} \Lra \ownGhost\gname{\melt\mtimes\meltB : M_i}} % \axiomH{GhostUnit} % {\TRUE \Ra \ownGhost{\gname}{\munit : M_i}} % \axiomH{GhostZero} % {\ownGhost\gname{\mzero : M_i} \Ra \FALSE} % \axiomH{GhostTimeless} % {\timeless{\ownGhost\gname{\melt : M_i}}} % \end{mathpar} % \subsection{STSs with interpretation}\label{sec:stsinterp} % Building on \Sref{sec:stsmon}, after constructing the monoid $\STSMon{\STSS}$ for a particular STS, we can use an invariant to tie an interpretation, $\pred : \STSS \to \Prop$, to the STS's current state, recovering CaReSL-style reasoning~\cite{caresl}. % An STS invariant asserts authoritative ownership of an STS's current state and that state's interpretation: % \begin{align*} % \STSInv(\STSS, \pred, \gname) \eqdef{}& \Exists s \in \STSS. \ownGhost{\gname}{(s, \STSS, \emptyset):\STSMon{\STSS}} * \pred(s) \\ % \STS(\STSS, \pred, \gname, \iname) \eqdef{}& \knowInv{\iname}{\STSInv(\STSS, \pred, \gname)} % \end{align*} % We can specialize \ruleref{NewInv}, \ruleref{InvOpen}, and \ruleref{InvClose} to STS invariants: % \begin{mathpar} % \inferH{NewSts} % {\infinite(\mask)} % {\later\pred(s) \vs[\mask] \Exists \iname \in \mask, \gname. \STS(\STSS, \pred, \gname, \iname) * \ownGhost{\gname}{(s, \STST \setminus \STSL(s)) : \STSMon{\STSS}}} % \and % \axiomH{StsOpen} % { \STS(\STSS, \pred, \gname, \iname) \vdash \ownGhost{\gname}{(s_0, T) : \STSMon{\STSS}} \vsE[\{\iname\}][\emptyset] \Exists s\in \upclose(\{s_0\}, T). \later\pred(s) * \ownGhost{\gname}{(s, \upclose(\{s_0\}, T), T):\STSMon{\STSS}}} % \and % \axiomH{StsClose} % { \STS(\STSS, \pred, \gname, \iname), (s, T) \ststrans (s', T') \proves \later\pred(s') * \ownGhost{\gname}{(s, S, T):\STSMon{\STSS}} \vs[\emptyset][\{\iname\}] \ownGhost{\gname}{(s', T') : \STSMon{\STSS}} } % \end{mathpar} % \begin{proof} % \ruleref{NewSts} uses \ruleref{NewGhost} to allocate $\ownGhost{\gname}{(s, \upclose(s, T), T) : \STSMon{\STSS}}$ where $T \eqdef \STST \setminus \STSL(s)$, and \ruleref{NewInv}. % \ruleref{StsOpen} just uses \ruleref{InvOpen} and \ruleref{InvClose} on $\iname$, and the monoid equality $(s, \upclose(\{s_0\}, T), T) = (s, \STSS, \emptyset) \mtimes (\munit, \upclose(\{s_0\}, T), T)$. % \ruleref{StsClose} applies \ruleref{StsStep} and \ruleref{InvClose}. % \end{proof}  Ralf Jung committed Jan 31, 2016 225   Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 % Using these view shifts, we can prove STS variants of the invariant rules \ruleref{Inv} and \ruleref{VSInv}~(compare the former to CaReSL's island update rule~\cite{caresl}): % \begin{mathpar} % \inferH{Sts} % {\All s \in \upclose(\{s_0\}, T). \hoare{\later\pred(s) * P}{\expr}{\Ret \val. \Exists s', T'. (s, T) \ststrans (s', T') * \later\pred(s') * Q}[\mask] % \and \physatomic{\expr}} % { \STS(\STSS, \pred, \gname, \iname) \vdash \hoare{\ownGhost{\gname}{(s_0, T):\STSMon{\STSS}} * P}{\expr}{\Ret \val. \Exists s', T'. \ownGhost{\gname}{(s', T'):\STSMon{\STSS}} * Q}[\mask \uplus \{\iname\}]} % \and % \inferH{VSSts} % {\forall s \in \upclose(\{s_0\}, T).\; \later\pred(s) * P \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \exists s', T'.\; (s, T) \ststrans (s', T') * \later\pred(s') * Q} % { \STS(\STSS, \pred, \gname, \iname) \vdash \ownGhost{\gname}{(s_0, T):\STSMon{\STSS}} * P \vs[\mask_1 \uplus \{\iname\}][\mask_2 \uplus \{\iname\}] \Exists s', T'. \ownGhost{\gname}{(s', T'):\STSMon{\STSS}} * Q} % \end{mathpar} % \begin{proof}[Proof of \ruleref{Sts}]\label{pf:sts} % We have to show % $\hoare{\ownGhost{\gname}{(s_0, T):\STSMon{\STSS}} * P}{\expr}{\Ret \val. \Exists s', T'. \ownGhost{\gname}{(s', T'):\STSMon{\STSS}} * Q}[\mask \uplus \{\iname\}]$ % where $\val$, $s'$, $T'$ are free in $Q$.  Ralf Jung committed Jan 31, 2016 242   Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 243 244 % First, by \ruleref{ACsq} with \ruleref{StsOpen} and \ruleref{StsClose} (after moving $(s, T) \ststrans (s', T')$ into the view shift using \ruleref{VSBoxOut}), it suffices to show % $\hoareV{\Exists s\in \upclose(\{s_0\}, T). \later\pred(s) * \ownGhost{\gname}{(s, \upclose(\{s_0\}, T), T)} * P}{\expr}{\Ret \val. \Exists s, T, S, s', T'. (s, T) \ststrans (s', T') * \later\pred(s') * \ownGhost{\gname}{(s, S, T):\STSMon{\STSS}} * Q(\val, s', T')}[\mask]$  Ralf Jung committed Jan 31, 2016 245   Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 246 247 248 % Now, use \ruleref{Exist} to move the $s$ from the precondition into the context and use \ruleref{Csq} to (i)~fix the $s$ and $T$ in the postcondition to be the same as in the precondition, and (ii)~fix $S \eqdef \upclose(\{s_0\}, T)$. % It remains to show: % $\hoareV{s\in \upclose(\{s_0\}, T) * \later\pred(s) * \ownGhost{\gname}{(s, \upclose(\{s_0\}, T), T)} * P}{\expr}{\Ret \val. \Exists s', T'. (s, T) \ststrans (s', T') * \later\pred(s') * \ownGhost{\gname}{(s, \upclose(\{s_0\}, T), T)} * Q(\val, s', T')}[\mask]$  Ralf Jung committed Jan 31, 2016 249   Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 250 251 % Finally, use \ruleref{BoxOut} to move $s\in \upclose(\{s_0\}, T)$ into the context, and \ruleref{Frame} on $\ownGhost{\gname}{(s, \upclose(\{s_0\}, T), T)}$: % $s\in \upclose(\{s_0\}, T) \vdash \hoare{\later\pred(s) * P}{\expr}{\Ret \val. \Exists s', T'. (s, T) \ststrans (s', T') * \later\pred(s') * Q(\val, s', T')}[\mask]$  Ralf Jung committed Jan 31, 2016 252   Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 253 % This holds by our premise.  Ralf Jung committed Jan 31, 2016 254 % \end{proof}  Ralf Jung committed Jan 31, 2016 255   Ralf Jung committed Mar 07, 2016 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 % % \begin{proof}[Proof of \ruleref{VSSts}] % % This is similar to above, so we only give the proof in short notation: % % \hproof{% % % Context: $\knowInv\iname{\STSInv(\STSS, \pred, \gname)}$ \\ % % \pline[\mask_1 \uplus \{\iname\}]{ % % \ownGhost\gname{(s_0, T)} * P % % } \\ % % \pline[\mask_1]{% % % \Exists s. \later\pred(s) * \ownGhost\gname{(s, S, T)} * P % % } \qquad by \ruleref{StsOpen} \\ % % Context: $s \in S \eqdef \upclose(\{s_0\}, T)$ \\ % % \pline[\mask_2]{% % % \Exists s', T'. \later\pred(s') * Q(s', T') * \ownGhost\gname{(s, S, T)} % % } \qquad by premiss \\ % % Context: $(s, T) \ststrans (s', T')$ \\ % % \pline[\mask_2 \uplus \{\iname\}]{ % % \ownGhost\gname{(s', T')} * Q(s', T') % % } \qquad by \ruleref{StsClose} % % } % % \end{proof} % \subsection{Authoritative monoids with interpretation}\label{sec:authinterp} % Building on \Sref{sec:auth}, after constructing the monoid $\auth{M}$ for a cancellative monoid $M$, we can tie an interpretation, $\pred : \mcarp{M} \to \Prop$, to the authoritative element of $M$, recovering reasoning that is close to the sharing rule in~\cite{krishnaswami+:icfp12}. % Let $\pred_\bot$ be the extension of $\pred$ to $\mcar{M}$ with $\pred_\bot(\mzero) = \FALSE$. % Now define % \begin{align*} % \AuthInv(M, \pred, \gname) \eqdef{}& \exists \melt \in \mcar{M}.\; \ownGhost{\gname}{\authfull \melt:\auth{M}} * \pred_\bot(\melt) \\ % \Auth(M, \pred, \gname, \iname) \eqdef{}& M~\textlog{cancellative} \land \knowInv{\iname}{\AuthInv(M, \pred, \gname)} % \end{align*} % The frame-preserving updates for $\auth{M}$ gives rise to the following view shifts: % \begin{mathpar} % \inferH{NewAuth} % {\infinite(\mask) \and M~\textlog{cancellative}} % {\later\pred_\bot(a) \vs[\mask] \exists \iname \in \mask, \gname.\; \Auth(M, \pred, \gname, \iname) * \ownGhost{\gname}{\authfrag a : \auth{M}}} % \and % \axiomH{AuthOpen} % {\Auth(M, \pred, \gname, \iname) \vdash \ownGhost{\gname}{\authfrag \melt : \auth{M}} \vsE[\{\iname\}][\emptyset] \exists \melt_f.\; \later\pred_\bot(\melt \mtimes \melt_f) * \ownGhost{\gname}{\authfull \melt \mtimes \melt_f, \authfrag a:\auth{M}}} % \and % \axiomH{AuthClose} % {\Auth(M, \pred, \gname, \iname) \vdash \later\pred_\bot(\meltB \mtimes \melt_f) * \ownGhost{\gname}{\authfull a \mtimes \melt_f, \authfrag a:\auth{M}} \vs[\emptyset][\{\iname\}] \ownGhost{\gname}{\authfrag \meltB : \auth{M}} } % \end{mathpar} % These view shifts in turn can be used to prove variants of the invariant rules: % \begin{mathpar} % \inferH{Auth} % {\forall \melt_f.\; \hoare{\later\pred_\bot(a \mtimes \melt_f) * P}{\expr}{\Ret\val. \exists \meltB.\; \later\pred_\bot(\meltB\mtimes \melt_f) * Q}[\mask] % \and \physatomic{\expr}} % {\Auth(M, \pred, \gname, \iname) \vdash \hoare{\ownGhost{\gname}{\authfrag a:\auth{M}} * P}{\expr}{\Ret\val. \exists \meltB.\; \ownGhost{\gname}{\authfrag \meltB:\auth{M}} * Q}[\mask \uplus \{\iname\}]} % \and % \inferH{VSAuth} % {\forall \melt_f.\; \later\pred_\bot(a \mtimes \melt_f) * P \vs[\mask_1][\mask_2] \exists \meltB.\; \later\pred_\bot(\meltB \mtimes \melt_f) * Q(\meltB)} % {\Auth(M, \pred, \gname, \iname) \vdash % \ownGhost{\gname}{\authfrag a:\auth{M}} * P \vs[\mask_1 \uplus \{\iname\}][\mask_2 \uplus \{\iname\}] % \exists \meltB.\; \ownGhost{\gname}{\authfrag \meltB:\auth{M}} * Q(\meltB)} % \end{mathpar} % \subsection{Ghost heap} % \label{sec:ghostheap}% % We define a simple ghost heap with fractional permissions. % Some modules require a few ghost names per module instance to properly manage ghost state, but would like to expose to clients a single logical name (avoiding clutter). % In such cases we use these ghost heaps. % We seek to implement the following interface: % \newcommand{\GRefspecmaps}{\textsf{GMapsTo}}% % \begin{align*} % \exists& {\fgmapsto[]} : \textsort{Val} \times \mathbb{Q}_{>} \times \textsort{Val} \ra \textsort{Prop}.\;\\ % & \All x, q, v. x \fgmapsto[q] v \Ra x \fgmapsto[q] v \land q \in (0, 1] \\ % &\forall x, q_1, q_2, v, w.\; x \fgmapsto[q_1] v * x \fgmapsto[q_2] w \Leftrightarrow x \fgmapsto[q_1 + q_2] v * v = w\\ % & \forall v.\; \TRUE \vs[\emptyset] \exists x.\; x \fgmapsto[1] v \\ % & \forall x, v, w.\; x \fgmapsto[1] v \vs[\emptyset] x \fgmapsto[1] w % \end{align*} % We write $x \fgmapsto v$ for $\exists q.\; x \fgmapsto[q] v$ and $x \gmapsto v$ for $x \fgmapsto[1] v$. % Note that $x \fgmapsto v$ is duplicable but cannot be boxed (as it depends on resources); \ie we have $x \fgmapsto v \Lra x \fgmapsto v * x \fgmapsto v$ but not $x \fgmapsto v \Ra \always x \fgmapsto v$. % To implement this interface, allocate an instance $\gname_G$ of $\FHeap(\textdom{Val})$ and define % $% x \fgmapsto[q] v \eqdef % \begin{cases} % \ownGhost{\gname_G}{x \mapsto (q, v)} & \text{if q \in (0, 1]} \\ % \FALSE & \text{otherwise} % \end{cases} %$ % The view shifts in the specification follow immediately from \ruleref{GhostUpd} and the frame-preserving updates in~\Sref{sec:fheapm}. % The first implication is immediate from the definition. % The second implication follows by case distinction on $q_1 + q_2 \in (0, 1]$.  Ralf Jung committed Jan 31, 2016 347   Ralf Jung committed Jan 31, 2016 348 349 350 351 352  %%% Local Variables: %%% mode: latex %%% TeX-master: "iris" %%% End: